Joint 44th AIC Annual Meeting & 42nd CAC-ACCR Annual Conference – “The Challenges of Conservation of Artifacts from Major Disasters: Titanic, Challenger, Columbia and the World Trade Center.” Speaker: Elizabeth Beesley, May 16

Major disasters in instances such as the NASA’s Challenger and Columbia, the RMS Titanic, and World Trade Center are usually caused as a result of mechanical or thermal stresses that the object was not built to withstand.  Artifacts that result from these tragedies imbue an immense cultural reaction, especially when there is a large-scale loss of life.  To honor the lives lost and provide closure for survivors, these artifacts are frequently memorialized.  According to Conservation Solutions, Inc. (CSI): “working on these artifacts is complex as they have unique materials-related challenges and emotional and cultural importance.”1
NASA’s space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after takeoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on January 28, 1986.  After the explosion, pieces of the Challenger fell into and were later recovered from the Atlantic Ocean.  One piece recovered from the shuttle’s left side panel patriotically displays an image of the U.S. flag.  This panel contained a wide range of materials from fiber batting to ceramic tiles to stainless steel.  Conservation issues addressed during treatment include chemical and mechanical damages from the explosion, stabilizing chemical damages from extended exposure to salt water, and removal of barnacles and other biological attachments.
CSI_ShuttleChallenger   CSI_ShuttleColumbia
In another space shuttle disaster, NASA’s Columbia disintegrated in Earth’s atmosphere minutes before its scheduled landing at Cape Canaveral on February 1, 2003.  Unlike the Challenger, the Columbia debris was recovered from a Texas field and stored in a controlled museum climate.  Frames that were recovered from the Columbia’s crew module windows were selected for conservation treatment and exhibition.  CSI intentionally left scorch marks intact as well as soil and foliage embedded in the frames since these elements are significant to the history of the artifact.  Conservation treatments for the Challenger and the Columbia were conducted in secrecy at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.  Due to the sensitivity and heightened security associated with these treatments, restrictions were placed on materials brought on base, treatment methods pursued, and waste produced and removed from the base.  Once completed, the panel from the Challenger and frames from the Columbia went on display at the Kennedy Space Center in the summer of 2015 as part of a memorial exhibit titled Forever Remembered.
The RMS Titanic collided with an iceberg on April 14, 1912 and sank the following morning.  Had there were a sufficient number of lifeboats on board, many deaths would have been prevented.  Davits (image above) projecting over the side of the ship were manually operated to lower life boats into the water.  One Davit arm conserved by CSI “tell[s] a poignant tale of the Titanic’s sinking as one side of the base shows the screw for the arm in its lowered position while the other is still raised, showing that one of the too few lifeboats that could have saved lives was not lowered.”2
The conserved Davit arm and base had spent decades underwater which severely impacted the iron, steel, and brass metal body and fixings.  Because the structure had become quite fragile, the CSI team needed to first stabilize the Davit arm and base and then create an exhibition mount.  The Davit arm and base were gently power washed to remove corrosion and the segments were sealed with wax.  The mount was composed of an iron frame and steel base which provided additional support and is capable of being disassembled and reassembled for exhibition.
There were seven buildings that together formed the World Trade Center.  The Twin Towers ascended high above the other buildings in the World Trade Center as well as the surrounding buildings in New York City.  On the morning of September 11, 2001, two hijacked planes were flown into the towers.  The towers collapsed about an hour later, destroying with them the other buildings in the World Trade Center complex.
Sections of “tridents” from the base of the World Trade Center remained intact after the collapse, and these architectural elements became an icon of durability and survival for both New Yorkers and Americans across the country.   Each trident measured between 70-90 feet and weighed around 50 tons.3  They were removed by the FBI and transported from the site to an undisclosed location.  The CSI team conducted treatment in 2015.  The main focus of this treatment was to stabilize the paint rust and calcareous attachments, apply a protective coating, prevent water from pooling, and deter birds from nesting inside the trident.  As with the Challenger and Columbia, the World Trade Center project was conducted in secret and the conservators had to abide by government restrictions during treatment.  The FBI provided CSI with a camera, but conservators were not allowed to bring their own camera equipment or cellular phones onto the property.  All before treatment, during treatment, and after treatment photographs were reviewed by the Bureau before being approved and released to the conservation team.  Not all the photos that were released to the team were approved to show during Beesley’s presentation.
For each case that was discussed – NASA’s Challenger and Columbia, the RMS Titanic, and World Trade Center  –  the materials conserved exhibit the physical evidence and effects of disaster.  The conservation processes varied from one project to another, but all of them had some degree of secrecy, communication restrictions, and logistics challenges.  These objects carry significant cultural value and evoke extreme reactions of fear, anger, sadness, and other emotions from the public.  This is especially relevant for objects of recent tragedies and required the CSI team to be diligent about balancing the complex, varied, and changing relationships that stakeholders had with the artifacts.
1 Beesley, E., Sembrat, J., Rabinowitz, M., & Posluszny Bello, J. (2016). The Challenges of Conservation of Artifacts from Major Disasters: Titanic, Challenger, Columbia and the World Trade Center [Abstract]. American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works 44(1) and Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property 42(1), 11. Retrieved from
2 (N/A). RMS Titanic Davit Base and Davit Arm Conservation and Mounting. Conservation Solutions, Inc. Retrieved from
3 Dunlap, D. (2010, September 8). Two ‘Trees’ Return to the World Trade Center. The New York Times. Retrieved from
Pruitt, S. (2015, August 3). NASA Displays Challenger and Columbia Wreckage. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved from
Excerpts of authors’ backgrounds as listed on Conservation Solutions, Inc.
Elizabeth Beesley, Conservator & Project Manager
Elizabeth is a conservator with a background in conservation science and experience in collections management and historic preservation. She holds an MEng in Materials Science (2004) from the University of Oxford where she researched Bronze Age metalwork.  While a graduate student in conservation at University College London, she conserved archaeological material at English Heritage and worked on historic aircraft at the Science Museum in London.  Subsequently, Elizabeth investigated excavated lacquerware using spectroscopy at the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. More recently she managed a digitization program at College Park Aviation Museum where she also assisted with collections care. Before joining Conservation Solutions in 2012, Elizabeth worked as an assistant conservator at Aeon Preservation on archival research, construction management and condition assessments.  For more information about Elizabeth, please visit:
Joseph Sembrat, Senior Executive Vice President & Senior Conservator
Joseph Sembrat has been immersed in the conservation field for over twenty years. In 1999, together with his wife Julya, he founded Conservation Solutions, which has since developed into a leading, nationwide, historic preservation firm focusing on art, artifacts and architecture.  Conservation Solutions has been recognized for and won numerous awards for its work over recent years . . . Joe is also an accomplished author and presenter of topical industry relevant issues.  He continuously conducts research and publishes papers on topics in the preservation field with special emphasis on technology-sharing among various areas of industrial research and its applicability to conservation treatments.  Joe holds an MS in Historic Preservation from Columbia School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation (1993), and a BA in Art History from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (1990).  For more information about Joe, please visit:
Mark Rabinowitz, Executive Vice President & Senior Conservator
Mark Rabinowitz is Executive Vice President, Senior Conservator. He has been part of the senior management team of Conservation Solutions since 2003.  He brings over 25 years of experience as a conservator to the leadership team of the firm.  Mark served as Deputy Chief of Operations for Preservation at the Central Park Conservancy throughout the 1990s, during which time he initiated and directed their monuments conservation and historic preservation programs.  In 1997 Mark was named Chief Consulting Conservator for the New York City Parks Department where he started up a similar program to treat monuments throughout New York City . . . Mark has presented papers, published articles, lectured and taught at national and international conferences and institutions including APT, AIC, ICOMOS US, SFIIC (France), Tulane University, Columbia University, New York University Conservation Center, University of Texas at San Antonio, Long Island University, Penland School of Crafts, and the Lacoste School of the Arts in France. His art has been exhibited in galleries in New York, Brussels, and Paris, and is represented in public and private collections in the US and Europe.  For more information about Mark, please visit:
Justine Posluszny Bello, Vice President of Operations & Senior Conservator
Justine joined Conservation Solutions in 2007. She operates as a project lead and Senior Conservator, applying her strong expertise in all aspects of conservation, including condition assessments, conservation treatments, materials testing and analysis, and construction management . . . Justine holds a MS in Historic Preservation from Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, and a BA in Historic Preservation from the University of Mary Washington.  For more information about Justine, please visit:

Joint 44th AIC Annual Meeting & 42nd CAC-ACCR Annual Conference – “Carlo Crivelli's St. George Slaying the Dragon at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum: Technique and Restoration.” Speaker: Gianfranco Pocobene, May 17

An Altarpiece Reunited.  Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.  2015.  Web.  30 May 2016 <>.
Carlo Crivelli’s St. George Slaying the Dragon was completed in 1470 as one of six panels in the Porto San Giorgio Altarpiece.  After the church was demolished in 1803, this altarpiece was disassembled and individual panels dispersed to collections throughout Europe and the United States.  The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum (ISGM) acquired St. George Slaying the Dragon panel in 1897.
Since arriving at the museum, Carlo Crivelli’s painting has undergone two conservation treatments: one by George Stout during 1934-1935 and the other by Pocobene and his team during 2013-2015.  The 2013-2015 treatment was conducted in anticipation of the ISGM’s exhibition Ornament and Illusion: Carlo Crivelli of Venice (10/22/2015–1/26/2016).  This was the first exhibition featuring Crivelli to be held in the United States and the St. George panel was selected to be one of the centerpieces.
St. George was constructed using traditional Venetian techniques and materials including egg tempera paint, ornamental relief, and gold leaf gilding.  These layers were visible along some of the periphery edges.  Worm tunnels in the upper right edge indicate the poplar panel had previously been trimmed-down, likely during the time the six altarpiece panels were separated.  Low relief forms, known as pastiglia, were built-up in the armor, halo, forehead gemstone, and the horses bridal and reigns.
In preparation for the Ornament and Illusion exhibition, an extensive examination was performed including X-radiography, IR, RTI, XRF, and SEM analyses.  The resulting X-radiograph revealed lead white in the original paint layers as well as dense lead putty fills during the previous restoration.  Infrared reflectography revealed both carbon black ink underdrawing and contour line reinforcements in bone black paint (the presence of this paint made it difficult to discern the underdrawing).  Reflectance transformation imaging revealed the fish scale textures in the armor and sword hilt.  X-ray fluorescence revealed lead white, earth pigments, vermillion, red lake, and azurite in the blue-scale fish pattern, and silver in the armor (indicating that the brown-black color is actually tarnished silver leaf).  Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed by Richard Newman at the MFA Boston.  After cross sections from the armor were analyzed with SEM, the presence of silver leaf was confirmed, conversion of the silver leaf to a silver sulfide, and a surface layer of bone black covering the leaf.  In addition to the technical analyses, images from 1926 and documentation from the 1934-1935 restoration were also referenced.
NormalLight_vs_IRR  NormalLight_vs_RTI
During the 2013-2015 treatment, the cleaning process focused on removing grime, the old PVA varnish, yellowed wax coating, and old restorations that no longer matched the original paint layers.  Fills, inpainting, and regilding was employed to restore the panel painting.  In order to maintain its aged appearance, the 23k gold leaf and shell gold applied in a few selected areas of the sky and abraded pastiglia to reintroduce more vibrancy and hint at the original finish.  If you would like to learn more about this treatment or about the Ornament and Illusion exhibition, please visit:
About the authors:
Gianfranco Pocobene earned his M.A. in Conservation from Queen’s University and holds a Certificate of Advanced Training in Paintings Conservation from the Harvard Art Museums. For the past thirty years, Pocobene has worked as a paintings conservator in the United States and Canada, and for the past twelve years, he has been the John L. and Susan K. Gardner Chief Conservator at the ISGM.
Jessica Chloros earned her M.S. in Art Conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation.  For the past eight years, Chloros has worked as an associate objects conservator at the ISGM.
Richard Newman earned his B.A. in art history from Western Washington University, M.A. in geology from Boston University, and Certificate from the Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University.  For the past thirty years, he has worked as a conservation scientist at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  Newman is currently the Head of Scientific Research at the MFA, Boston.

43rd Annual Meeting – “Investigating Softening and Dripping Paints in Oil Paintings Made Between 1952 and 2007” by Ida Antonia Tank Bronken and Jaap J. Boon, May 14

Issues encountered during analysis and treatment of contemporary artworks by conservation scientists, conservators, and other professionals have been brought into the limelight during recent years. Both in the United States and throughout the world, contemporary art collections have introduced new concerns regarding the use of modern materials, artists’ intent, and so on. Even the modern use of materials such as oil paints have demonstrated conservation issues. During this presentation, Bronken described her team’s research into oil paintings (created after 1950) which have exhibited softening and dripping media. The team’s research was conducted on works produced by Jean-Paul Riopelle (Canadian, 1923-2002), Pierre Soulages (French, b. 1919), Georges Matthieu (French, 1921-2012), Paul-Émile Borduas (Canadian, 1905-1960), Frank Van Hemert (Dutch, b. 1956), Paul Walls (Irish, b. 1965), Jonathan Meese (German, b. 1970), and Tal R (Danish, b. 1967).
Softened paint shows decreased surface gloss in normal light and drip material fluoresces in ultraviolet light (sometimes misinterpreted as fluorescing varnish). Softening/dripping impasto and thickly applied paints are easier to identify, but analysis has demonstrated the presence of softening in thinner paint layers as well. Possible causes of this phenomenon are the use of semi-drying oils in recent decades and the development of fatty acids in paint. In their abstract, the authors mention: “There is ample evidence from a number of paints studied by mass spectrometry that the exudates are rich in polar fractions with triglycerides with moieties of mid-chain oxygen-functionalised stearic acids and azelaic acids . . . observations led to the hypothesis that exudation is caused by a loss or absence of anchor sites for the acidic fractions that develop over time.”1
Details from Peinture (1954) by SoulagesTest area from the Seven Series (1990-1995) by Van Hemert
Lead II acetate and europium II acetate were tested by brush and gel application. These compounds treated the softening and dripping oil paint at the molecular level by penetrating into the sample to create carboxylates and forming a hard crust on the paint surface. Brush application was determined to be the most effective method. At this time, the only disadvantage appears to be the lack of reversibility.

About the Speakers

Ida Antonia Tank Bronken, Touring Exhibitions Coordinator, The National Museum, Norway
Bronken graduated from the University of Oslo with a Candidata Magisterii in Fine Art Conservation (2002) and a Masters in Conservation (2009). Bronken has been working for the Touring Exhibitions Department at the National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design in Norway since 2011. Her main interests are collection management and chemical change in modern paint. Bronken has cooperated with Boon since 2007 on different studies on softening and dripping paint, and has contributed to four papers since 2013 about dripping paint (currently at different stages of publication and review).2
Jaap J. Boon, JAAP Enterprise for Art Scientific Studies
Boon, PhD was trained in Geology and Chemistry at the Universities of Amsterdam, Utrecht and Delft Technical University (1978). He became Head of Molecular Physics at the FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (1987) and Professor of Molecular Palaeobotany at the University of Amsterdam (1988). His first survey studies on painting materials and traditional paints were performed in 1991, which resulted in collaborative research with Tate Gallery London, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Limburg Conservation Studio (SRAL) in Maastricht and EU supported development projects. His research focus changed gradually from identification of constituents towards chemical microscopy and spectroscopic imaging of pigments, binding media and their interactions in paintings. Boon was Professor of Analytical Mass Spectrometry in the University of Amsterdam (2003-2009) and is presently author/coauthor of about 400 research papers and supervised 33 PhD theses. Boon received the KNAW Gilles Holst Gold Medal for his innovative work at the cross roads of chemistry and physics in 2007.3
1 Bronken, I., & Boon J. J. (2015). Investigating Softening and Dripping Paints in Oil Paintings Made Between 1952 and 2007 [Abstract]. AIC Annual Meeting 2015 Abstracts, 81-82.
2 Bronken, I. (2015). Ida Bronken – AIC’s 43rd Annual Meeting [SCHED Speakers]. Retrieved from
3 Boon, J. J. (2015). Jaap J. Boon – AIC’s 43rd Annual Meeting [SCHED Speakers]. Retrieved from

43rd Annual Meeting – ECPN/CIPP Happy Hour, May 13

Before the opening sessions began, the Emerging Conservation Professionals Network and Conservators In Private Practice co-hosted an evening happy hour at the Hyatt Regency Miami (sponsored by Tru Vue, Inc.). Everyone at the conference was welcome as this event was not ticketed. Appetizers present included breads, cheeses, hummus, fruits and vegetables, and even mini burgers. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks were available for purchase.
Attendees ate, drank, and mingled indoors on the Promenade or outside on the Riverwalk Terrace (image below). The event was well attended with probably between one or two hundred people networking and having fun. Some people decided to stay inside the air conditioned building while others went outside to enjoy the 80˚ weather and view of the Miami River. There were tables and chairs available for small groups to gather, and alternatively, many small groups also chose to sit on the steps and relax.
I certainly recommend those of you who did not attend to do so at a future conference, especially if you are an emerging professional. This happy hour was an excellent opportunity to meet the other attendees. If you are someone who is nervous about attending, please remember that this is supposed to be laid-back and other people want to meet you too. If you know some people at the conference, feel free to begin the evening with them. But after you are more comfortable, you should also make an effort to branch-out and talk to people that you do not know. And do not forget to distribute business cards to your new contacts.
If you want to learn more about other networking opportunities open to attendees, you should read reviews for the Opening Reception, Specialty Group Receptions, and Emerging Conservation Professionals Luncheon.

Riverwalk Terrace, Hyatt Regency Miami


42nd Annual Meeting – Paintings Session, May 29, "Eclectic Materials and Techniques of American Painters: 1860-1910" by Lance Mayer and Gay Myers

Gay Myers, with the support of Lance Mayer, presented research on American artists gathered from primary sources including artists’ interviews, notebooks, letters, manuals, and suppliers’ catalogues, periodicals, and advertisements. Their presentation focused on a period when more Americans began traveling to Europe.
The influence of instruction from French academics like Thomas Couture (1815-1879) was particularly strong. The American painter Elizabeth Boott (1846-1888) wrote manuscripts about European techniques that delineated Couture’s studio instruction in Paris, William Morris Hunt’s (1824-1879) classes in Boston, and Frank Duveneck’s (1848-1919) practice in Munich. Couture advocated the method of painting thinly over brown underlayers (these paint layers become more transparent over time, and so, this method has sometimes led to problems). He influenced several nineteenth century American painters including Eastman Johnson (1824-1906), Winslow Homer (1836-1910), and Thomas Eakins (1844-1916). Hunt and his pupil Helen Knowlton (1832-1918) believed that caring too much about one’s technique was stifling. Duveneck employed large amounts of oil media in his paintings to achieve a “buttery” application and sealed his works with extremely glossy varnishes. Duveneck’s varnishes were so thick that the American painter John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), who preferred light varnishes, advised others not to let “D” or any of his boys varnish their paintings.
The Art Amateur (1879–1903), an American magazine edited by Montague Marks (1847-1905), used the artists’ advice columns to document Thomas Dewing’s (1851-1938) use of matte varnishes, the growing popularity of the shellac-based Soehnée’s varnish as both a retouching and final varnish, and the early beginnings of the tempera revival in America. The American author Albert Abendschein (1860-1914) was among those in opposition to the tempura revival and has been quoted stating “the egg is more useful taken internally and kept out of the studio.” Abendschein instead advocated for indirect painting in which glazes are layered onto a monochromatic underpainting. In his 1906 book, The Secret of the Old Masters, Abendschein documented the growing tempura revival, commercially-produced paints containing wax, as well as other art trends.
J.G. Vibert (1840-1902), Edward Dufner (1872-1957), Mary Louise McLoughlin (1847-1939), and other significant members of the art community discussed varnishing practices, pigments, added media, and supplementary topics in a series of interviews conducted by DeWitt McClellan Lockman (1870-1957). The French author Vibert advocated a preference for petroleum solvents, and similarly, the American artist Dufner began using kerosene oil instead of turpentine because it dries without a glossy sheen. Dufner considered glossy surfaces so undesirable that he wrote on the verso of one of his paintings: “This picture being in a light key is meant to be matte surface and should never be varnished.” Vibert was also a staunch believer that lead white was not compatible with vermillion or cadmium and offered zinc white as an alternative. Concern about the toxicity of lead white also lead many artists, including McLoughlin, to start using zinc white. Since that time, technical analysis has confirmed zinc white is more prone to cracking than lead white.
This presentation effectively demonstrated the extent to which American painters experimented during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. If you would like to learn more about the materials and techniques of American painters, Mayer and Myers have authored multiple publications including American Painters on Technique: The Colonial Period to 1860 (2011) and American Painters on Technique: 1860-1945 (2013).
American Painters on Technique
About the Speakers
Lance Mayer and Gay Myers graduated from the Oberlin College conservation program (1977 and 1978) and work as independent conservators to private collectors and public institutions including the Lyman Allyn Art Museum. The authors are fellows of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC) and have each served as chair of the AIC Paintings Specialty Group. They have collaborated on conservation and research projects for over thirty years, were awarded the Winterthur Advanced Research Fellowship (1999), Museum Scholars at the Getty Research Institute (2003), and College Art Association/Heritage Preservation Award for Distinction and Scholarship in Conservation (2013).

42nd Annual Meeting – Opening Session, May 29, "The Long and Winding Road . . . Effective Advocacy, Fundraising, Networking, & Collaboration: Promoting Sustained Preventive Conservation Globally" by Debra Hess Norris

Across the globe, people are united in the desire to preserve tangible and intangible cultural heritage during catastrophic natural disasters, warfare, economic collapse, and other crises. Photographic collections, for example, are considered valuable to many cultures yet traditional photographic processes are disappearing. These collections are incalculable in number, many exist under poor conditions, and only a small percentage of them are inventoried systematically.
As professionals, we are accustomed to evaluating the condition of collections such as these and perform analytical research. While these pursuits are essential to the field, Debra Hess Norris reminds us that we must engage in intercultural dialogue, advocacy, and fundraising in order to effectively care for global cultural heritage.
We must not operate in isolation but rather promote education and training through hybrid and certificate programs. We must build public awareness and advocate for our cause through traditional media, social media, bilingual platforms, and crowd sourcing. We must pursue external support from organizations such as the Giving Pledge, Clinton Global Agenda, Gates Foundation, Luce Foundation, and US Ambassador Fund. The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works and FAIC should facilitate communication with the Institute of International Education, Department of State, and the Alliance for International Education and Cultural Exchange. In addition, AIC and FAIC must participate with ICCROM, ICOM, IIC, and UNESCO.
In closing, Norris reminds us that our projects – small and large, local and global – must be significant. She demonstrates this through a slideshow featuring John Lennon’s “Imagine” and images of photographic preservation projects from the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, Europe and Asia.
About the Speaker
Debra Hess Norris earned an interdisciplinary B.A. degree in chemistry, art history, and studio art (1977) and M.S. degree in conservation (1980) from the University of Delaware. She has taught more than 100 workshops and seminars for conservators and allied professionals, has authored more than 35 articles and book chapters on the care and treatment of photographic materials, conservation education, ethics, and emergency response, and has collaborated on a series of Worldwide Photographic Preservation Projects with conservation professionals, organizations, and agencies.
Norris has served as chair of the AIC Ethics and Standards Committee (1990-1993), as president of the AIC (1993-1997), on the National Task Force for Emergency Response (1995-2000), and chair of Heritage Preservation (2003-2008). Currently residing as Chair of the Art Conservation Department at the University of Delaware and Professor of Photograph Conservation, she serves on the board of the Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts (CCAHA) and the Advisory Committee for the FAIC Hermitage Photograph Conservation Initiative.
Related Lectures/Webinars
ECPN Webinar: “Conservation Education, Outreach, and Advocacy” with Teresa Myers, Richard McCoy, and Sarah Barack. April 2013.
ECPN Webinar: “Self-Advocacy and Fundraising for Personal Research” with Debra Hess Norris. July 2012.